In days gone by, chest waders were rubberized from chest to sole with no circulation of air. If you’ve had your hands in rubber dishwashing gloves for thirty minutes, you can imagine the misery of trapping your entire body in that hot and sweaty rubberized environment for an entire afternoon. But thanks to technology, fly fishermen are now enjoying much greater comfort pursuing their popular sport. Today’s waders are breathable through the use of Gore-tex or other breathable product, or they’re made of neoprene. We’ll talk about those in a bit, but first let’s clarify the types of waders. Fishing waders are available in three general types: Boot waders, which are typically chest waders, stocking-foot waders-with their neoprene sock- and hip waders. Boot waders have the boot attached for convenience, but also tend to be bulkier and more difficult to get into, while the stocking-foot waders are easier to put on and therefore more popular. However, with stocking-foot waders, the fisherman still has to add dedicated fly fishing boots which increase the overall bulk involved. Both of these waders are available in chest height and waist height for shallower waters, but the traditional chest waders have been most common. Hip waders are a third variety, that only extend to the top of the thigh and are far more comfortable and easy to wear. Even so, their use is limited to shallow and slow-moving water, so depending on the fishing areas chosen by the individual, more than one type may be needed. In terms of the different materials found in fly fishing waders, the two primary materials used are Gore-tex and neoprene. The choice made is usually related to the conditions for fishing. Neoprene is a layered, non-breathable fabric that is ideal for maintaining body heat in cold conditions, and is the material of choice for scuba divers. Therefore, when fishing conditions are cold, neoprene waders are the waders of choice. In warmer conditions, the breathability of Gore-tex fly fishing waders are preferred.